Gasoline injection has its beginnings in the years 1898-1901, when the company Deutz uses first injection systems for gasoline engines range. The system is then adopted by aircraft manufacturers, who apply between 1906-1910 airplane engines Antoinette and Wright, then the engines Junkers.
In 1937 he built the first motorcycle with petrol injection and electromagnetic injectors, while Daimler-Benz and Auto-Union factories equips some cars with petrol injection.
Injection petrol engines require manufacturers of automobiles until 1950, due to the results achieved by the company Mercedes-Benz model MB300SL. During this period, large firms automotive Daimler-Benz, Opel, BMW, Porsche, VW / Audi, GM, Citroen, Peugeot, Renault, Saab, Volvo, Jaguar, Nissan, Datsun, Toyota, performed in several petrol injection cars.
Development of equipment for injection gasoline was hampered in the mid-60s, the large number and complexity of the whole installation components supply and high cost of it. Carburetors MAS equipping sites with complex or multiple carburetors failed to deliver the performance expected power and reduce emissions. In addition, the price difference between such a facility and power plant which use petrol injection became less sensitive. For further increasing the power liters of MAS’s, reducing fuel consumption and especially for severe reduction in emissions of exhaust gases imposed by international law, it is preferred injection gasoline which, however, precision dosing petrol It had improved for all operating conditions of the engine.
Any injection equipment for internal combustion engines must be arranged so as to ensure:
- Compressing the fuel at high enough pressure required fine spray thereof;
- Metering the amount of fuel per cycle;
- Triggering controlled injection;
- Introduce the fuel into the engine cylinder or intake manifold and spraying it;
- Distribution of fuel between the cylinders, with a high degree of uniformity.
- Electronically controlled fuel injection, electronic or injection petrol could meet those aspirations. Moreover, for vehicles fitted with electronic fuel injection gasoline engines, has also brought an increase in driving safety.
Compressing the fuel injection pressure of 0.2 … 0.4 MPa, the necessary spraying gasoline, can also be done by any electronic device. This function is performed by using feed pumps, which, for low flow rates and discharge pressures can be driven by means of electric motors fed from the storage battery of the vehicle. In this case, the electric motor drive can be controlled by the electronic control unit.
Fuel dosage can be done at its inlet or discharge pump. In both cases, participation electronics is possible or appropriate order intakes mounted an electric fuel pump or acting different actuators activated by the electronic control unit and control. When using electromagnetic injectors, fuel metering cycle is injected by adjusting their opening time, duration controlling the electrical signal emitted by unit.
Triggering injection and precision of its production cycle time can be ordered electronically, easily and accurately. In this trigger electrical signals are used in conjunction with speed and firing order of the engine, the electronics after a program stored beforehand.
Introduce the fuel into the engine cylinders or intake manifold is suitable, too, if using electromagnetic injectors, electronic command and control. By lifting the injector needle by means of a solenoid activated by the electronic unit fuel injector which has access to the engine passes. Spraying fuel spray orifice depends on the geometry and by the pressure upstream of the orifice; spray function cannot be controlled electronically.
Using injection systems instead of carburetors, led, in addition to reducing NOx emissions of exhaust at a lot of improvement in motor functioning, which include:
- fuel economy by adapting precisely the quantity of fuel injected into the engine’s working conditions.
- rapid response to pressing the throttle;
- greater engine flexibility to transition from one regime to another;
- improved cold starting and warming the engine;
- precise control of the idle speed;
- fuel cut during deceleration;
- eliminate the phenomenon of icing that occurs in winter, sometimes equipped with carburetor engines;
- rapid diagnosis;
- exhibit high operational precision, due to their relatively simple and electronic controls available.
Electronic petrol injection superiority manifests and dosing precision of gasoline, its dosage increased uniformity between the cylinders. Also, the electronic fuel injection offers advantages in terms of their ability to reproduce the dependencies complex and varied, such as the quantity of fuel injected per cycle according to the depression in the intake manifold, the air temperature in the intake manifold, the temperature of the coolant, the speed etc., increased accuracy, reduced overall cost and size.
Further advantages arise from the fact that it may introduce a large number of sizes corrections for all operating conditions of the engine.
In Europe, the first electronic injection device was produced in 1967 and mounted on a car VW 4-cylinder and 1.6-liter displacement. Ten years later, more than one million cars were fitted with electronic injection K and L – Jetronic, manufactured by Bosch, which has become the world leader in this field. It is a proof that the electronic injection has become a necessity for the situation which demanded an economic and environmentally friendly car.
Spread gasoline injection was “delayed” the carburetor involving competition with lower cost prices. Launching injection of gasoline is due to new relations “man-nature-car” and the need to achieve (the fuel crisis conditions) of more economical vehicles.